Alcohol by volume, or ABV, is used to measure the alcohol content of beer, wine, distilled spirits, and other alcoholic beverages. Beers typically fall in the 3.0-13.0% ABV range, though some can be weaker or stronger than this.
What Is the Average ABV of Alcohol?
Every alcoholic beverage is required to have the alcohol by volume on its label. Typically abbreviated ABV and given as a percentage, this measurement will tell you how much alcohol is in the drink.
Each style of alcohol has a certain ABV range though some products can fall outside these averages:
- Beer: 3-13% ABV
- Wine: 8-14% ABV
- Liquor: 15-50% ABV
It's important to note that 'proof' is only used with distilled spirits in the U.S. It is calculated by doubling a liquor's ABV.
ABV and Beer
The ABV will tell you how many ounces of actual alcohol are in the beverage. For example, if a 12-ounce bottle of beer is 5.0% alcohol, that means that 0.6 ounces of pure alcohol are in that beer.
The equation looks like this: 12 x 0.05 = 0.6
Most beer will fall in that 3-13% ABV range. There are low-alcohol beers such as O'Doul's that have 0.5% ABV (sorry, it's not truly non-alcoholic!) and others like the Kvass style that range from 0.5-2.5% ABV. Likewise, there are beers like the Eisbock style with a range of 9.0-15.0% ABV.
- The majority of beers fall in the 4.0-7.0% range.
- You will also notice that beer almost always adds tenths after the decimal point, even if it's an even 4%. For example, 4.0% ABV rather than 4% ABV.
What Is High-Point Beer?
High-point beer is another term that you will hear often. It typically refers to any beer that is over 4.0% ABV. However, there is no technical definition and one person's high-point may be different than another's definition.
The term high-point is often used when discussing beer laws. A few states only allow 3.2% beer to be sold in grocery stores and leave the stronger stuff for liquor store sales. In this context, anything over that is considered 'high-point.'
ABV vs. ABW
The majority of the world measures alcohol content by volume. In very rare instances (such as historically in Utah), the government may measure alcohol by weight (ABW). Why is this? The reason is unclear and it simply makes things complicated and confusing.
Nonetheless, if you see an alcohol percentage on a beer label but it does not specify whether it is ABV or ABW, it is safe to assume that it is ABV.
ABV can be converted to ABW by dividing by 0.795. That means that the 3.2% ABW beer you buy in Utah is actually 4.0% ABV.
The equation looks like this: .032 x .795 = .0402
The ABV of Your Homebrew
If you didn't think that math and beer were related, then you obviously have not brewed your own beer. Brewing is a science and homebrewers quickly learn the importance of careful calculations in the process. One of those is used to figure out the alcohol content of their beers.
In order to figure out the ABV of your beer, subtract the final gravity from the original gravity then divide by 0.0075.
- 1.050 - 1.012 = .038
- 0.038 / 0.0075 = 5.07% ABV