Egg Wash for Breads, Rolls, Pastry, and Pies

Brushing egg wash on bread
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Egg wash often appears in pastry and bread recipes and can be used to create a shiny, brown crust or act as an edible glue. An egg wash is a simple mixture of egg and a little water, milk, or heavy cream. You can adjust the egg wash so your baked goods come out as crisp, soft, or shiny as you want them.

How to Make an Egg Wash

An egg wash is usually made with 3 parts egg to 1 part liquid. This means you'll add about 1 tablespoon of milk, cream, or water for each large egg. To make it, beat the egg well with a fork, then add the liquid. Continue beating to get a consistency that can easily be brushed on top of the bread product prior to baking.

When to Use Egg Wash

Using an egg wash on yeast breads, pie crusts, and other baked goods can help with the browning process. The type of egg wash you use makes a difference in the appearance and texture of the crust as well, though all will add some degree of shine.

You'll also want to use an egg wash for bread so seeds, grains, chopped herbs, or sugars attach to the top. In some applications, such as making pastries, egg wash acts as a glue that can hold two pieces together with an amazingly strong bond.

Types of Egg Wash

Should you use a whole egg, a yolk, or just the white? Typically, a recipe will provide a suggestion about which part of the egg to use as well as whether it's best to mix it with cream, milk, or water. When no direction is given, or when you want to customize a recipe, use the chart to determine which mixture to use based on the desired color, texture, and shine. Any of these combinations will make a workable egg wash for bread or pastry.

Note that an egg wash can also be made with beaten egg alone. Just keep in mind that the less liquid you add, the darker and shinier the crust will become. In addition, brushing on milk or cream alone will result in a soft crust with a little color. Water alone will help achieve a crisp crust.

Whole Egg + Milk Color, Shine
Whole Egg + Water Soft Crust, Shine, Color
Egg Yolk + Milk or Cream Soft Crust, Shine, Color
Egg White + Water Firm Crust, Shine

Tip

Salt can help loosen egg whites. For an egg white-only wash (no yolk), add a pinch of salt. Even when mixed with water, this will make the wash easier to spread on savory breads and rolls.

Applying Egg Wash

An egg wash can be applied to shaped bread or rolls before or after proofing, but it should always be added before baking. When applying after proofing, use a very light touch with the brush to avoid deflating the bread. Avoid using too much egg wash, and if it does pool up in places, carefully dab it with a paper towel to absorb the excess.

After applying the egg wash, rinse the pastry brush very well under cold water first. Hot water will cause the egg to coagulate and make cleanup difficult. To prevent Salmonella bacteria, be sure an egg wash is added only to food that will be cooked and that all tools are thoroughly cleaned afterward.