The Food and Cooking of England

A Rich Cuisine Steeped in Heritage

Fish and chips on newsprint

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English food at its best is a hearty, simple, and delicious fare. English cooking is steeped in history, yet the modern face of British food presents a dynamic and thriving cuisine now followed intensely by foodies around the globe.

A Brief History

English food has been heavily influenced by invaders. Vikings, Romans, and French brought their own influence to the English table. The impact of the Franco-Normans is clearly reflected in the common use of their spices: saffron, mace, nutmeg, pepper, ginger, and sugar. Medieval English cookery abounds with recipes containing these contributions, and these ingredients are still found in traditional recipes.

The British Empire

The British Empire’s invasion into East Asia brought tea to England, and in return, the English introduced it to India, another region under their imperialist rule. From India came the love for curry, spicy sauces, and condiments which now are such an intrinsic part of English cuisine.

The World Wars

Immense damage was inflicted on English cookery throughout two World Wars, when the war effort used up all available goods and services, leaving little for private consumption.  During World War II, food rationing of the most essential ingredients—meat, sugar, butter, and eggs—continued until early into the 1950s.

Back on the Map

Several notable upsets in the food world created a change in the English diet, namely Hoof-and-Mouth Disease, the Horse Meat Scandal, and a deep monetary recession in the early part of the 21st century. What emerged was a massive resurgence of traditional English foods, recipes, and cooking, using locally-produced seasonal foods wherever possible. Though it has taken many years to overcome, England has regained its reputation for some of the finest foods, best chefs, and renowned restaurants.

Traditions and Favorite Dishes

English food traditions are many and varied. Who hasn't heard of afternoon tea, the full English breakfast, a Sunday roast, or the hallowed British pub?

So rich and diverse is English food, that England boasts no less than three national dishes: Roast beef and Yorkshire pudding, fish and chips, and—their controversial third—chicken tikka masala. Some say this is the new national dish, one that has evolved from the extensive migration into the country from India and Pakistan. Regardless of the debate surrounding it, it is most certainly an English favorite.

British puddings are renowned. Often steamed or baked (as in spotted dick) and served with custard, they are the perfect dish on a wet winter's day. But puddings are not always sweet, like the savory steak and kidney pudding.