Taking a bite of fresh chile might not lead the eater to guess that chiles are in the same botanical family as potatoes, eggplants, and tomatoes. Chiles contain capsaicin, an oil that tricks the brain into feeling pain, which leads to the release of endorphins—causing what chile-lovers call a "chile high." To reduce the amount of heat in chiles, remove the white-ish veins, where the capsaicin is most highly concentrated, and the seeds, the secondary location of capsaicin.
Look for these fresh chiles at specialty markets and some farmers markets in warmer areas. Hot chiles need hot air to grow and develop their heat.
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Jalapeños might be the best-known hot chiles in the U.S. They are smooth, green, shiny, and plump looking. They were once famous for their heat, although higher demand for the commercial crop to make salsas (and jalapeño poppers!) has led to jalapeños bred for wider, less daring consumption. Plenty of jalapeños still pack a punch, though, and those in doubt can always go for serrano chiles, since they have a very similar green, grassy flavor under all that heat.
Jalapeños ripen to red and red jalapeños can sometimes be found for sale. Many chiles labeled "red jalapeños" are, however, really Fresno chiles.
When allowed to ripen to red, jalapeños are often dried and smoked, at which point they are called chipotles.
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Fresno chiles are about the same size as jalapeños, but they are slightly more bell-shaped and are a truly bright red. As such, they are often sold as "red jalapeños" since they have a similar heat profile. Fresno chiles are great to use for their vivid color as much as for their flavor, especially when mixed with earthier green colors.
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Habaneros are widely known as the hottest chiles out there, even though Scotch Bonnet chiles, which look almost identical, give them a run for their money. Both start out green and turn yellow, then a brilliant bright sunny orange, and finally red when ripe. Habaneros are primarily grown in the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, where they are used extensively.
People who love shocking heat can use habaneros in chiles and marinades; most palates will find even a small amount of habanero to be quite hot. They are worth seeking out and trying, however, because they have an amazingly perfumed taste that is more complex than other chiles.Continue to 5 of 8 below.
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Poblano chiles are large (about the size of a child's hand), bell or even heart shaped, and often slightly flat. They are very dark green and shiny. They can be hot but are usually relatively mild and good for stuffing (as in these Beef Stuffed Chiles). Poblanos are quite bitter when raw, but turn noticeably sweeter when roasted.
When allowed to ripen to red and dried, poblano chiles become ancho chiles.
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