Mention tuna and most people think of cans. However, it hasn't always been so: all along the Sicilian coast there are villages called tonnare that people would inhabit during the tuna season; when the tuna arrived (they're migratory fish) the men would take to the sea, stringing nets that hung down from the surface like curtains, forming a corridor that guided the tuna into a final net with a bottom strung between the boats or in an inlet.
Once the school was in this "chamber of death" the men would pull the net to the surface, bringing the tuna with it, and the mattanza -- the slaughter -- would begin, the sea running red as the villagers gathered much of the animal protein they would need to survive the coming year.
Alas, like many other things, the traditional tonnara has fallen into decline, a victim of increasing industrial pollution in the Mediterranean and overfishing by commercial fleets that operate out at sea. However, some tonnare survive, and aside from the use of outboard motors and synthetic materials in the nets, little has changed in the fishing technique. The tonnare located where the tuna no longer arrive, you wonder? Many are in strikingly beautiful spots, so they're being converted into summer resorts -- sad, in a way, but at least they're being preserved.
Returning to tuna, much of the catch was certainly preserved, in part by packing in oil.
However, there are also many ways of preparing fresh tuna. Don't have tuna where you live? Ask your fishmonger. Other large fish of the same family should also work well in these recipes, as might other large fish, for example swordfish:
Cipolle Ripiene col Tonno
Onions filled with tuna, a Ligurian treat that will be perfect in summer.
Insalata di Pasta Profumata al Limone
A tasty lemony pasta salad with plenty of tuna, which makes it a meal by itself (or with a green salad)
Tonnu a la Matalotta
Tuna Matalotta Style, in other words stewed with tomatoes, olives and capers.
Baked Tuna, with thinly sliced potatoes, is very good.
Tonno al Limone
Delightful lemony tuna fillets from Sardegna.
Tunnu a Palirmitana
Grilled tuna with garlic, rosemary and sage.
Fresh Tuna marinated with fresh oregano and grilled.
Tonno Cunzatu 'Nta Gratigghia
Fresh tuna marinated in wine and grilled with herbs.
Tonno coi Piselli
Tuna with peas: a quick, easy summer recipe.
Tunnu Squadatu d'u Capu Rais
Fresh tuna, boiled and served with a delicate lemon sauce.
Tonnu a Ra Marinara
Zesty Calabrian stewed tuna.
Tuna grilled, and marinated with olives. Quite nice on a hot day.
Tonno Fresco al Cartoccio
Tuna baked al cartoccio (in paper), Viareggio style.
Pomodori Ripieni al Tonno
Tuna fish and tomato go well year round, and become perfection in this tasty stuffed tomato recipe.