Classic pesto is an Italian savory sauce made with a mixture of naturally gluten-free fresh herbs, olive oil, nuts, garlic, and pecorino or Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese. It's never cooked and is most often served over fresh pasta.
According to our Italian Food Guide, "Ideally pesto made with Ligurian basil, pine nuts, garlic and olive oil, and—if you want to be traditional—either pecorino sardo or bra, a Piemontese cow's milk cheese, or— if you want to be more modern— Parmigiano Reggiano, which is more expensive than the traditional cheeses (Genovesi are known for their thriftiness)."
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