Ingredient Substitutions Chart

What to Use When You're Out of an Ingredient

Ingredients for Baking
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Ingredient Substitutions

Use substitutions in emergency situations, and keep in mind they may not perform like the original ingredient.

IngredientAmountSubstitute
Allspice1 tsp.1/2 tsp. cinnamon and 1/2 tsp. ground cloves
Apple pie spice1 tsp.1/2 tsp. cinnamon, 1/4 tsp. nutmeg, and 1/8 tsp. cardamom
Arrowroot1 1/2 tsp.1 tbsp. flour
1 1/2 tsp. cornstarch
Baking powder1 tsp.1/3 tsp. baking soda and 1/2 tsp. cream of tartar
1/4 tsp. baking soda and 1/2 cup sour milk or buttermilk (Decrease liquid called for in the recipe by 1/2 cup.)
1/4 tsp. baking soda and 1/2 tsp. vinegar or lemon juice used with sweet milk to make 1/2 cup (Decrease liquid called for in the recipe by 1/2 cup.)
Bay leaf1 whole1/4 tsp. crushed
Beau Monde1 tsp.1 tsp seasoning or seasoned salt
1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. Mei Yen seasoning
Bread1 slice dry1/3 cup dry breadcrumbs
1 slice soft bread3/4 cup soft breadcrumbs
Broth, beef or chicken1 cup1 bouillon cube dissolved in 1 cup boiling water
1 envelope powdered broth base dissolved in 1 cup boiling water
1 1/2 tsp. powdered broth base dissolved in 1 cup boiling water
Butter1 cup7/8 to 1 cup hydrogenated fat and 1/2 tsp. salt
7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 tsp. salt
1 cup margarine
Buttermilk (sour milk)1 cup1 cup plain yogurt
1 cup whole or skim milk plus 1 tbsp. lemon juice or white vinegar
1 cup milk plus 1 3/4 tsp. cream of tartar
Chili sauce1 cup1 cup tomato sauce, 1/4 cup brown sugar, 2 tbsp. vinegar, 1/4 tsp. cinnamon, a dash of ground cloves, and a dash of allspice
1 cup catsup, 1/4 tsp. cinnamon, dashes of ground cloves and allspice
Chives, finely chopped2 tsp.2 tsp. green onion tops, finely chopped
Chocolate, chips semisweet1 oz.1 oz. sweet cooking chocolate
Chocolate, semisweet1 2/3 oz.1 oz. unsweetened chocolate plus 4 tsp. sugar
6 oz. package1 cup
Chocolate, unsweetened1 oz. or square3 tbsp cocoa plus 1 tbsp. fat
Cocoa1/4 cup or 4 tbsp.1 oz (square) unsweetened chocolate (Decrease fat called for in the recipe by 1/2 tbsp.)
Coconut cream1 cup1 cup whipping cream
Coconut milk1 cup1 cup whole or 2% milk
Corn1 dozen ears2 1/2 cups cooked
Cornmeal, self-rising1 cup7/8 cup plain, 1 1/2 tbsp. baking powder, and 1/2 tsp. salt
Corn syrup1 cup1 1/4 cup light brown sugar and 1/3 cup water
7/8 cup honey (Baked goods will brown more.)
Corn syrup, dark1 cup3/4 cup light corn syrup and 1/4 cup light molasses
Cornstarch (for thickening)1 tbsp.2 tbsp. all-purpose flour
2 tbsp. granular tapioca
Cracker crumbs3/4 cup1 cup dry bread crumbs
Cream, heavy
(36% to 40% fat)
1 cup3/4 cup milk and 1/3 cup butter or margarine (for use in cooking or baking)
2 to 2 1/2 cup whipped
Cream, light
(18% to 20% fat)
1 cup3/4 cup milk and 3 tbsp. butter or margarine (for use in cooking or baking)
1 cup evaporated milk, undiluted
Cream, whipped Chill a 13 oz. can of evaporated milk until ice crystals form. Add 1 tsp. lemon juice. Whip until stiff.
Dates1 lb.2 1/2 cup pitted
Dill plant, fresh or dried3 heads1 tbsp. dill seed
Egg, whole, uncooked

1 large

(3 tbsp.)

3 tbsp. and 1 tsp. thawed frozen egg
2 1/2 tbsp. sifted, dry whole egg powder and 2 1/2 tbsp. lukewarm water
2 yolks and 1 tbsp. water (in cookies)
2 yolks (in custards, cream fillings, and similar mixture)
2 whites as a thickening agent
Eggs, uncooked1 cup5 large eggs
6 medium eggs
Egg white

1 large

(2 tbsp.)

2 tsp. thawed frozen egg white
2 tbsp. sifted dry egg white powder and 2 tbsp. lukewarm water
1 cup8 large egg whites
Egg yolk

1 yolk

(1 1/2 tbsp.)

3 1/2 tbsp. thawed frozen egg yolk
2 tbsp. sifted dry egg yolk
1 cup12 large egg yolks
Fines Herbes1/3 cup3 tbsp. parsley flakes + 2 tsp. dried chervil + 2 tsp. dried chives + 1 tsp. dried tarragon
Flour, all-purpose (for thickening)1 tbsp.1 1/2 tsp. cornstarch, arrowroot starch, potato starch, or rice starch
1 tbsp. granular tapioca
1 tbsp. waxy rice flour
2 tbsp. browned flour
1 1/2 tbsp. whole wheat flour
1/2 tbsp. whole wheat flour and 1/2 tbsp all-purpose flour
1 tbsp. quick-cooking tapioca
Flour, all-purpose1 cup sifted1 cup and 2 tbsp.cake flour
1 cup rolled oats, crushed
1/2 cup cornmeal or soybean flour and 2/3 cup all-purpose flour
1/2 cup cornmeal, bran, rice flour, or whole wheat flour and 1/2 cup all-purpose flour
3/4 cup whole wheat flour or bran flour and 1/4 cup all-purpose flour
1 cup rye or rice flour
1/4 cup soybean flour and 3/4 cup all-purpose flour
1 lb.4 cups sifted
3 1/3 cups unsifted
Flour, cake1 lb.4 3/4 cups
1 cup sifted1 cup minus 2 tbsp. sifted all-purpose flour (7/8 cup)
Flour, self-rising1 cup1 cup minus 2 tsp all-purpose flour, 1 1/2 tsp. baking powder, and 1/2 tsp. salt
Fruit, fresh, cut up1 1/2 cups16 oz. can, drained
Garlic1 clove, small1/8 tsp. garlic powder
Garlic salt1 tsp.1/8 tsp. garlic powder plus 7/8 tsp. salt
Gelatin, flavored3 oz.1 tbsp. plain gelatin and 2 cups fruit juice
Ginger1/8 tsp.1 tsp. candied ginger rinsed in water to remove sugar, then finely cut
1 tbsp. raw ginger
Herbs, fresh1 tbsp, chopped1/2 tsp. dried crushed herbs
Honey1 cup1 1/4 cup sugar and 1/4 cup water
Horseradish1 tbsp.2 tbsp. bottled fresh
Ketchup1 cup1 cup tomato sauce, 1/4 cup brown sugar, and 2 tbsp. vinegar (for use in cooking)
Lemon juice1 tsp. juice1/2 tsp. vinegar
Lemon peel, dried1 tsp.1 to 2 tsp. grated fresh lemon peel
grated peel of 1 medium lemon
1/2 tsp. lemon extract
Lime1 medium1 1/2 to 2 tbsp. juice
Maple sugar (grated and packed)1/2 cup1 cup maple syrup
1 tbsp.1 tbsp. white, granulated sugar
Marshmallows, miniature1 cup8-10 regular
Mayonnaise (for salad dressings)1 cup1/2 cup yogurt and 1/2 cup mayonnaise
1 cup sour cream
1 cup cottage cheese pureed in a blender
Mei Yen seasoning1 tsp.1 tsp. Beau Monde seasoning
1/2 tsp. salt
Milk, buttermilk (or sour)1 cup1 cup plain yogurt
1 cup minus 1 tbsp. sweet milk and 1 tbsp. lemon juice or vinegar (Allow to stand 10 minutes at room temperature.)
1 cup sweet milk and 1 3/4 tsp. cream of tartar
Milk, skim1 cup4 to 5 tbsp. non-fat dry milk powder and enough water to make 1 cup or follow manufacturer's directions
1/2 cup evaporated milk and 1/2 cup water
Milk, sweetened condensed1 can (about 1 1/3 cup)Heat the following ingredients until sugar and butter are dissolved: 1/3 cup plus 2 tbsp. evaporated milk, 1 cup sugar, and 3 tbsp. butter or margarine.
Add 1 cup plus 2 tbsp. dry milk to 1/2 cup warm water. Mix well. Add 3/4 cup sugar and 3 tbsp. melted butter or margarine. Stir until smooth.
Milk, whole1 cup1 cup reconstituted non-fat dry milk (Add 2 tbsp. butter or margarine, if desired.)
1/2 cup evaporated milk and 1/2 cup water
4 tbsp whole dry milk and 1 cup water (or follow manufacturer's directions)
1 cup fruit juice or 1 cup potato water (for use in baking)
Mushrooms, fresh1 lb.2 to 3 cup whole
3 oz dried
5 cup sliced
1 10 oz. can (8 oz., drained weight)
Mushrooms, canned4 oz.2 cups sliced fresh
6 tbsp whole, dried mushrooms
Mustard, dry1 tsp.1 tbsp. prepared mustard
Onion, fresh1 smallrehydrate 1 tbsp. instant minced onion
Onion powder1 tbsp.1 medium onion, chopped
4 tbsp. fresh chopped onion
Onions1 lb.3 large onions
2 to 2 1/2 cup chopped
Orange peel, dried1 tbsp.2 to 3 tbsp. grated orange peel
grated peel of 1 medium orange
2 tsp.1 tsp. orange extract
Parsley, dried1 tsp.3 tsp. fresh parsley, chopped
Peppers, green bell1 tbsp. dried3 tbsp .fresh green pepper, chopped
Peppers, red bell1 tbsp. dried3 tbsp fresh red pepper, chopped
2 tbsp chopped pimiento
Peppermint, dried1 tbsp.1/4 cup chopped fresh mint
Pimiento2 tbsp.1 tbsp. dried red bell peppers, rehydrated
3 tbsp. fresh red bell pepper, chopped
Pumpkin pie spice1 tsp.1/2 tsp. cinnamon, 1/4 tsp. ginger, 1/8 tsp. allspice, and 1/8 tsp. nutmeg
Rennet1 tablet1 tbsp. liquid rennet
Shortening, melted1 cup1 cup cooking oil (Substitute only if a recipe calls for melted shortening.)
Shortening, solid (used in baking)1 cup1 cup minus 2 tbsp. lard (7/8 cup)
1 1/8 cups butter (Decrease salt called for in the recipe by 1/2 tsp.)
Sour cream, cultured1 cup3/4 cup sour milk or buttermilk and 1/3 cup butter or margarine
Blend until smooth: 1/3 cup buttermilk, 1 tbsp. lemon juice, and 1 cup cottage cheese
1 cup plain yogurt
3/4 cup milk, 3/4 tsp. lemon juice, and 1/3 cup butter or margarine
Spearmint, dried1 tbsp.1/4 cup chopped fresh mint
Sugar, brown1 cup firmly packed1 cup granulated sugar
1 lb.2 1/4 cups firmly packed
Sugar, granulated1 lb.2 1/4 cups
Sugar, powdered1 lb.2 3/4 cups
Sugar, granulated1 tsp.1/8 tsp. noncaloric sweetener solution or follow manufacturer's directions
Sugar, granulated1 cup1 1/2 cups corn syrup (Decrease liquid called for in the recipe by 1/4 cup.)
1 1/3 cups molasses (Decrease liquid called for in the recipe by 1/3 cup.)
1 cup powdered sugar
1 cup brown sugar, firmly packed
3/4 cup honey (Decrease liquid called for in the recipe by 1/4 cup; for each cup of honey in baked goods, add 1/2 tsp. soda.)
Tapioca, granular1 tbsp.2 tbsp. pearl tapioca
Tomato juice1 cup1/2 cup tomato sauce and 1/2 cup water
Worcestershire sauce1 tsp.1 tsp. bottled steak sauce
Yogurt, plain1 cup1 cup buttermilk
1 cup cottage cheese blended until smooth

1 cup sour cream

 

Note: Substitutes for white flours added to most baked goods will result in a reduced volume and a heavier product. Substitute no more than 1/4 of white flour in a cake to ensure success. In other recipes, you can substitute whole wheat flour for 1/4 to 1/2 of white flour.


Some Common Substitution Mixes and Spice Blends

Easy Homemade Onion Soup Mix

Homemade Stuffing Mix (Stove Top Dressing)

Homemade Instant Oatmeal With Variations

Homemade Taco Seasoning Mix

Self-Rising Cornmeal Mix and Cornbread

Homemade Biscuit Baking Mix

Homemade Chili Powder Seasoning Blend

Cajun Spice Blend (salt-free)

Homemade Seasoned Salt Blend

Poultry Seasoning With Herbs

Easy Burger Seasoning Blend

Homemade Apple Pie Spice

How to Make Pumpkin Pie Spice Mix