Ingredient Substitutions Chart

What to Use When You're Out of an Ingredient

Ingredient Substitutions

Use substitutions in emergency situations, and keep in mind they may not perform like the original ingredient.

Ingredient Amount Substitute
Allspice 1 tsp.

1/2 tsp. cinnamon and 1/2 tsp. ground cloves

Apple pie spice 1 tsp.

1/2 tsp. cinnamon, 1/4 tsp. nutmeg, and 1/8 tsp. cardamom

Arrowroot 1 1/2 tsp. 1 tbsp. flour
Arrowroot 1 1/2 tsp.

1 1/2 tsp. cornstarch

Baking powder 1 tsp.

1/3 tsp. baking soda and 1/2 tsp. cream of tartar

Baking powder 1 tsp.

1/4 tsp. baking soda and 1/2 cup sour milk or buttermilk (Decrease liquid called for in the recipe by 1/2 cup.)

Baking powder 1 tsp.

1/4 tsp. baking soda and 1/2 tsp. vinegar or lemon juice used with sweet milk to make 1/2 cup (Decrease liquid called for in the recipe by 1/2 cup.)

Bay leaf 1 whole 1/4 tsp. crushed
Beau Monde 1 tsp.

1 tsp seasoning or seasoned salt

Beau Monde 1 tsp. 1/2 tsp. salt
Beau Monde 1 tsp.

1/2 tsp. Mei Yen seasoning

Bread 1 slice dry

1/3 cup dry breadcrumbs

Bread 1 slice soft bread

3/4 cup soft breadcrumbs

Broth, beef or chicken 1 cup

1 bouillon cube dissolved in 1 cup boiling water

Broth, beef or chicken 1 cup

1 envelope powdered broth base dissolved in 1 cup boiling water

Broth, beef or chicken 1 cup

1 1/2 tsp. powdered broth base dissolved in 1 cup boiling water

Butter 1 cup

7/8 to 1 cup hydrogenated fat and 1/2 tsp. salt

Butter 1 cup

7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 tsp. salt

Butter 1 cup 1 cup margarine
Buttermilk (sour milk) 1 cup

1 cup plain yogurt

Buttermilk (sour milk) 1 cup

1 cup whole or skim milk plus 1 tbsp. lemon juice or white vinegar

Buttermilk (sour milk) 1 cup

1 cup milk plus 1 3/4 tsp. cream of tartar

Chili sauce 1 cup

1 cup tomato sauce, 1/4 cup brown sugar, 2 tbsp. vinegar, 1/4 tsp. cinnamon, a dash of ground cloves, and a dash of allspice

Chili sauce 1 cup

1 cup catsup, 1/4 tsp. cinnamon, dashes of ground cloves and allspice

Chives, finely chopped 2 tsp.

2 tsp. green onion tops, finely chopped

Chocolate, chips semisweet 1 oz.

1 oz. sweet cooking chocolate

Chocolate, semisweet 1 2/3 oz.

1 oz. unsweetened chocolate plus 4 tsp. sugar

Chocolate, semisweet 6 oz. package 1 cup
Chocolate, unsweetened 1 oz. or square

3 tbsp cocoa plus 1 tbsp. fat

Cocoa 1/4 cup or 4 tbsp.

1 oz (square) unsweetened chocolate (Decrease fat called for in the recipe by 1/2 tbsp.)

Coconut cream 1 cup

1 cup whipping cream

Coconut milk 1 cup

1 cup whole or 2% milk

Corn 1 dozen ears

2 1/2 cups cooked

Cornmeal, self-rising 1 cup

7/8 cup plain, 1 1/2 tbsp. baking powder, and 1/2 tsp. salt

Corn syrup 1 cup

1 1/4 cup light brown sugar and 1/3 cup water

Corn syrup 1 cup

7/8 cup honey (Baked goods will brown more.)

Corn syrup, dark 1 cup

3/4 cup light corn syrup and 1/4 cup light molasses

Cornstarch (for thickening) 1 tbsp.

2 tbsp. all-purpose flour

Cornstarch (for thickening) 1 tbsp.

2 tbsp. granular tapioca

Cracker crumbs 3/4 cup

1 cup dry bread crumbs

Cream, heavy
(36% to 40% fat)
1 cup

3/4 cup milk and 1/3 cup butter or margarine (for use in cooking or baking)

Cream, heavy
(36% to 40% fat)
1 cup

2 to 2 1/2 cup whipped

Cream, light
(18% to 20% fat)
1 cup

3/4 cup milk and 3 tbsp. butter or margarine (for use in cooking or baking)

Cream, light
(18% to 20% fat)
1 cup

1 cup evaporated milk, undiluted

Cream, whipped 1 cup

Chill a 13 oz. can of evaporated milk until ice crystals form. Add 1 tsp. lemon juice. Whip until stiff.

Dates 1 lb. 2 1/2 cup pitted
Dill plant, fresh or dried 3 heads 1 tbsp. dill seed
Egg, whole, uncooked 1 large
(3 tbsp.)

3 tbsp. and 1 tsp. thawed frozen egg

Egg, whole, uncooked 1 large
(3 tbsp.)

2 1/2 tbsp. sifted, dry whole egg powder and 2 1/2 tbsp. lukewarm water

Egg, whole, uncooked 1 large
(3 tbsp.)

2 yolks and 1 tbsp. water (in cookies)

Egg, whole, uncooked 1 large
(3 tbsp.)

2 yolks (in custards, cream fillings, and similar mixture)

Egg, whole, uncooked 1 large
(3 tbsp.)

2 whites as a thickening agent

Eggs, uncooked 1 cup 5 large eggs
Eggs, uncooked 1 cup 6 medium eggs
Egg white 1 large
(2 tbsp.)

2 tsp. thawed frozen egg white

Egg white 1 large
(2 tbsp.)

2 tbsp. sifted dry egg white powder and 2 tbsp. lukewarm water

Egg white 1 cup

8 large egg whites

Egg yolk 1 yolk
(1 1/2 tbsp.)

3 1/2 tbsp. thawed frozen egg yolk

Egg yolk 1 yolk
(1 1/2 tbsp.)

2 tbsp. sifted dry egg yolk

Egg yolk 1 cup

12 large egg yolks

Fines Herbes 1/3 cup

3 tbsp. parsley flakes + 2 tsp. dried chervil + 2 tsp. dried chives + 1 tsp. dried tarragon

Flour, all-purpose (for thickening) 1 tbsp.

1 1/2 tsp. cornstarch, arrowroot starch, potato starch, or rice starch

Flour, all-purpose (for thickening) 1 tbsp.

1 tbsp. granular tapioca

Flour, all-purpose (for thickening) 1 tbsp.

1 tbsp. waxy rice flour

Flour, all-purpose (for thickening) 1 tbsp.

2 tbsp. browned flour

Flour, all-purpose (for thickening) 1 tbsp.

1 1/2 tbsp. whole wheat flour

Flour, all-purpose (for thickening) 1 tbsp.

1/2 tbsp. whole wheat flour and 1/2 tbsp all-purpose flour

Flour, all-purpose (for thickening) 1 tbsp.

1 tbsp. quick-cooking tapioca

Flour, all-purpose 1 cup sifted

1 cup and 2 tbsp.cake flour

Flour, all-purpose 1 cup sifted

1 cup rolled oats, crushed

Flour, all-purpose 1 cup sifted

1/2 cup cornmeal or soybean flour and 2/3 cup all-purpose flour

Flour, all-purpose 1 cup sifted

1/2 cup cornmeal, bran, rice flour, or whole wheat flour and 1/2 cup all-purpose flour

Flour, all-purpose 1 cup sifted

3/4 cup whole wheat flour or bran flour and 1/4 cup all-purpose flour

Flour, all-purpose 1 cup sifted

1 cup rye or rice flour

Flour, all-purpose 1 cup sifted

1/4 cup soybean flour and 3/4 cup all-purpose flour

Flour, all-purpose 1 lb. 4 cups sifted
Flour, all-purpose 1 lb.

3 1/3 cups unsifted

Flour, cake 1 lb. 4 3/4 cups
Flour, cake 1 cup sifted

1 cup minus 2 tbsp. sifted all-purpose flour (7/8 cup)

Flour, self-rising 1 cup

1 cup minus 2 tsp all-purpose flour, 1 1/2 tsp. baking powder, and 1/2 tsp. salt

Fruit, fresh, cut up 1 1/2 cups

16 oz. can, drained

Garlic 1 clove, small

1/8 tsp. garlic powder

Garlic salt 1 tsp.

1/8 tsp. garlic powder plus 7/8 tsp. salt

Gelatin, flavored 3 oz.

1 tbsp. plain gelatin and 2 cups fruit juice

Ginger 1/8 tsp.

1 tsp. candied ginger rinsed in water to remove sugar, then finely cut

Ginger 1/8 tsp.

1 tbsp. raw ginger

Herbs, fresh 1 tbsp, chopped

1/2 tsp. dried crushed herbs

Honey 1 cup

1 1/4 cup sugar and 1/4 cup water

Horseradish 1 tbsp.

2 tbsp. bottled fresh

Ketchup 1 cup

1 cup tomato sauce, 1/4 cup brown sugar, and 2 tbsp. vinegar (for use in cooking)

Lemon juice 1 tsp. juice 1/2 tsp. vinegar
Lemon peel, dried 1 tsp.

1 to 2 tsp. grated fresh lemon peel

Lemon peel, dried 1 tsp.

grated peel of 1 medium lemon

Lemon peel, dried 1 tsp.

1/2 tsp. lemon extract

Lime 1 medium

1 1/2 to 2 tbsp. juice

Maple sugar (grated and packed) 1/2 cup

1 cup maple syrup

Maple sugar (grated and packed) 1 tbsp.

1 tbsp. white, granulated sugar

Marshmallows, miniature 1 cup 8-10 regular
Mayonnaise (for salad dressings) 1 cup

1/2 cup yogurt and 1/2 cup mayonnaise

Mayonnaise (for salad dressings) 1 cup

1 cup sour cream

Mayonnaise (for salad dressings) 1 cup

1 cup cottage cheese pureed in a blender

Mei Yen seasoning 1 tsp.

1 tsp. Beau Monde seasoning

Mei Yen seasoning 1 tsp. 1/2 tsp. salt
Milk, buttermilk (or sour) 1 cup

1 cup plain yogurt

Milk, buttermilk (or sour) 1 cup

1 cup minus 1 tbsp. sweet milk and 1 tbsp. lemon juice or vinegar (Allow to stand 10 minutes at room temperature.)

Milk, buttermilk (or sour) 1 cup

1 cup sweet milk and 1 3/4 tsp. cream of tartar

Milk, skim 1 cup

4 to 5 tbsp. non-fat dry milk powder and enough water to make 1 cup or follow manufacturer's directions

Milk, skim 1 cup

1/2 cup evaporated milk and 1/2 cup water

Milk, sweetened condensed 1 can (about 1 1/3 cup)

Heat the following ingredients until sugar and butter are dissolved: 1/3 cup plus 2 tbsp. evaporated milk, 1 cup sugar, and 3 tbsp. butter or margarine.

Milk, sweetened condensed 1 can (about 1 1/3 cup)

Add 1 cup plus 2 tbsp. dry milk to 1/2 cup warm water. Mix well. Add 3/4 cup sugar and 3 tbsp. melted butter or margarine. Stir until smooth.

Milk, whole 1 cup

1 cup reconstituted non-fat dry milk (Add 2 tbsp. butter or margarine, if desired.)

Milk, whole 1 cup

1/2 cup evaporated milk and 1/2 cup water

Milk, whole 1 cup

4 tbsp whole dry milk and 1 cup water (or follow manufacturer's directions)

Milk, whole 1 cup

1 cup fruit juice or 1 cup potato water (for use in baking)

Mushrooms, fresh 1 lb. 2 to 3 cup whole
Mushrooms, fresh 1 lb. 3 oz dried
Mushrooms, fresh 1 lb. 5 cup sliced
Mushrooms, fresh 1 lb.

1 10 oz. can (8 oz., drained weight)

Mushrooms, canned 4 oz.

2 cups sliced fresh

Mushrooms, canned 4 oz.

6 tbsp whole, dried mushrooms

Mustard, dry 1 tsp.

1 tbsp. prepared mustard

Onion, fresh 1 small

rehydrate 1 tbsp. instant minced onion

Onion powder 1 tbsp.

1 medium onion, chopped

Onion powder 1 tbsp.

4 tbsp. fresh chopped onion

Onions 1 lb. 3 large onions
Onions 1 lb.

2 to 2 1/2 cup chopped

Orange peel, dried 1 tbsp.

2 to 3 tbsp. grated orange peel

Orange peel, dried 1 tbsp.

grated peel of 1 medium orange

Orange peel, dried 2 tsp.

1 tsp. orange extract

Parsley, dried 1 tsp.

3 tsp. fresh parsley, chopped

Peppers, green bell 1 tbsp. dried

3 tbsp .fresh green pepper, chopped

Peppers, red bell 1 tbsp. dried

3 tbsp fresh red pepper, chopped

Peppers, red bell 1 tbsp. dried

2 tbsp chopped pimiento

Peppermint, dried 1 tbsp.

1/4 cup chopped fresh mint

Pimiento 2 tbsp.

1 tbsp. dried red bell peppers, rehydrated

Pimiento 2 tbsp.

3 tbsp. fresh red bell pepper, chopped

Pumpkin pie spice 1 tsp.

1/2 tsp. cinnamon, 1/4 tsp. ginger, 1/8 tsp. allspice, and 1/8 tsp. nutmeg

Rennet 1 tablet

1 tbsp. liquid rennet

Shortening, melted 1 cup

1 cup cooking oil (Substitute only if a recipe calls for melted shortening.)

Shortening, solid (used in baking) 1 cup

1 cup minus 2 tbsp. lard (7/8 cup)

Shortening, solid (used in baking) 1 cup

1 1/8 cups butter (Decrease salt called for in the recipe by 1/2 tsp.)

Sour cream, cultured 1 cup

3/4 cup sour milk or buttermilk and 1/3 cup butter or margarine

Sour cream, cultured 1 cup

Blend until smooth: 1/3 cup buttermilk, 1 tbsp. lemon juice, and 1 cup cottage cheese

Sour cream, cultured 1 cup

1 cup plain yogurt

Sour cream, cultured 1 cup

3/4 cup milk, 3/4 tsp. lemon juice, and 1/3 cup butter or margarine

Spearmint, dried 1 tbsp.

1/4 cup chopped fresh mint

Sugar, brown 1 cup firmly packed

1 cup granulated sugar

Sugar, brown 1 lb.

2 1/4 cups firmly packed

Sugar, granulated 1 lb. 2 1/4 cups
Sugar, powdered 1 lb. 2 3/4 cups
Sugar, granulated 1 tsp.

1/8 tsp. noncaloric sweetener solution or follow manufacturer's directions

Sugar, granulated 1 cup

1 1/2 cups corn syrup (Decrease liquid called for in the recipe by 1/4 cup.)

Sugar, granulated 1 cup

1 1/3 cups molasses (Decrease liquid called for in the recipe by 1/3 cup.)

Sugar, granulated 1 cup

1 cup powdered sugar

Sugar, granulated 1 cup

1 cup brown sugar, firmly packed

Sugar, granulated 1 cup

3/4 cup honey (Decrease liquid called for in the recipe by 1/4 cup; for each cup of honey in baked goods, add 1/2 tsp. soda.)

Tapioca, granular 1 tbsp.

2 tbsp. pearl tapioca

Tomato juice 1 cup

1/2 cup tomato sauce and 1/2 cup water

Worcestershire sauce 1 tsp.

1 tsp. bottled steak sauce

Yogurt, plain 1 cup 1 cup buttermilk
Yogurt, plain 1 cup

1 cup cottage cheese blended until smooth

Yogurt, plain 1 cup

1 cup sour cream

Note: Substitutes for white flours added to most baked goods will result in a reduced volume and a heavier product. Substitute no more than 1/4 of white flour in a cake to ensure success. In other recipes, you can substitute whole wheat flour for 1/4 to 1/2 of white flour.


Some Common Substitution Mixes and Spice Blends

Cajun Spice Blend (salt-free)