Noodles are a staple in Korean cuisine. They are served in stews, soups, stir fries, and in cold salad dishes. On a Korean menu, the dishes will say "myeon" or "myun" or "gooksu" if they are noodle dishes.
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Naeng myun (or naengmyoen) is a Korean cold noodle dish made of thin, slightly chewy buckwheat noodles topped with egg, meat, vegetables, and a savory, vinegary ice-cold broth. Although it is now a summertime food among Koreans, its origins are in the North Korean mountains as a wintertime staple. Buckwheat grows well in high altitudes, and it became an important dish for Koreans living in the harsh mountain climate. But it is refreshing in hot weather, and it's a one-bowl meal that requires very little time at the stove.
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Chapchae is one of the most popular noodle dishes in Korea, and also seems to be the one that Westerners like best. The foundation of the dish is the mixture of the noodles, soy sauce, garlic, and sesame oil. Because mung bean or sweet potato noodles both absorb tons of flavor, you can mix and match the vegetables or meat to your liking. The version in the picture uses broccoli, red peppers, shiitake mushrooms, bulgogi, and onion.
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Jajangmyun (Chajangmyun, Jjajang myun) is one of the most popular noodle dishes in Korea. It is the Korean adaptation of a Chinese black bean noodle dish with the same name, and you can find it in every Chinese restaurant in Korea. It's delicious and satisfying but inexpensive to buy or make, so it's a favorite home-cooked or takeout meal among almost all Koreans.