The Scotch bonnet is the pepper of choice in the Caribbean—it's the most widely used hot pepper in the region's cuisine. You might see them labeled in stores and markets as "hot peppers" or "big peppers." These peppers have a heat rating of 80,000 to 400,000 on the Scoville scale and range in color from yellow to green to red, with some varieties ripening to shades of orange and brown. Scotch bonnet peppers are the main ingredient in pepper sauce, a typical Caribbean condiment.
What Is a Scotch Bonnet Pepper?
Scotch bonnets got their name because of their appearance. They grow in an odd, flattened shape that resembles a tam, or a "Scotsman's bonnet." Depending on what area of the Caribbean you're visiting, these peppers may also be called "Bahama mamas" or "Jamaican hots." In some regions, this pepper grows longer with less of a squashed appearance, but it is still the same, spicy hot pepper used in Caribbean cooking.
The scotch bonnet is one of the hottest peppers out there, ranking side-by-side with the habanero on the heat scale; in fact, it's a close relative of the habanero. It's considered spicier than the comparatively mild jalapeno. This is especially the case if you purchase them in areas of the U.S. with high Caribbean populations who like their dishes hot.
How to Cook With Scotch Bonnet Peppers
Scotch bonnet peppers are used to make the famous Caribbean or West Indian pepper sauces. Pepper sauce is traditionally used as a condiment, as well as to season meat, fish, and poultry. The scotch bonnet is also used whole to impart flavor without the full impact of its heat. In some preparations, it's simply chopped or minced and added to the food in the early stages of cooking.
You can reduce a lot of the heat from the Scotch bonnet (and any pepper, as a matter of fact) by removing its seeds as well as the membrane found inside the pepper—this is where most of the heat is stored. The more finely the pepper is chopped or minced, the more heat is spread in the dish. And be sure to take care when you're chopping the pepper; you'll definitely feel the effects when it comes in contact with your skin, and make a note not to touch your eyes or mouth. You might want to consider wearing cooking gloves.
What Does It Taste Like?
Scotch bonnets are hot peppers—very hot—but they can have an almost sweet, vaguely fruity taste underlying the spice. This can vary somewhat from region to region, however, because it depends on the soil conditions in which they're grown.
Scotch Bonnet Recipes
You will find variations in recipes for Caribbean hot pepper sauce, but one ingredient most have in common is the Scotch bonnet pepper. Whether in someone's home in the Islands or at a local restaurant, you're most likely to be served the pepper sauce on the side of almost any dish. Scotch bonnets are also a star ingredient in jerk preparations, heavily spicing meats and then cooking them on the grill.
Where to Buy Scotch Bonnets
It's unlikely you'll find Scotch bonnets in your local produce market or grocery store unless you happen to live in an area with a significant Latin American population. You might find Scotch bonnet sauce, however. If you're intent on getting your hands on the genuine pepper for a recipe you've been dying to try, look for an online vendor or try growing them yourself. Seeds and plants are also available online.
For short-term storage, place the Scotch bonnets in a zip-top bag and put in the refrigerator where they will remain fresh for 2 to 3 weeks. If you need to store for several months, you can freeze them. Place peppers on a baking sheet in a single layer and keep in the freezer until firm, then place in a zip-top bag. A third alternative is to brine the peppers by putting them in a jar with water and salt; they will last for about 1 month in the refrigerator.
Nutrition and Benefits
If you can handle the heat, you will be able to reap a few health benefits from these little, spicy chili peppers. Scotch bonnets are a good source of vitamins such as vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin B, as well as iron, niacin, riboflavin, and magnesium. They are also high in dietary fiber, phytochemicals, carotenoids, and flavonoids.
The chemical capsaicin not only makes these peppers spicy but also has been shown to offer medicinal properties. Capsaicin can be used to treat different types of pain such as headaches, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid pain, and painful diabetic neuropathy. It can also relieve chest congestion and prevent sinusitis. Researchers have also found capsaicin can prevent and block the growth of cancer cells and reduce the onset of cardiovascular diseases.