You may be familiar with pine nuts, the teardrop-shaped, delicious little nut that is often used in pesto. But you may not have ever thought about why it is called a pine nut. Is it actually part of a pine tree?
The answer is yes—pine nuts (also called pignoli) are the edible seeds of pine trees.
Growth and Harvest
Approximately 20 species of pine trees produce pine seeds that are large enough to harvest, but the most commonly harvested seeds come from four particular pine tree varieties: the Mexican pinon (Pinus cembroides), the Colorado pinion (P. edulis), the Italian stone pine (P. pinea), and the Chinese nut pine (P. koraiensis).
It takes anywhere from 15 to 25 years for the trees to begin producing the seeds and up to triple that time for them to reach top production. The majority of the North American harvest comes from wild, uncultivated trees. For the most part, the seeds are harvested by hand, a contributing factor to their expensive price tag.
The pine seeds are found in the pine cones and take about 18 months to mature. Since the pine nuts are ready to harvest 10 days or so before the cone begins to open, they are very difficult to remove. To speed up and ease the process, the cones are placed in a burlap bag and left in the sun to dry for 20 days. Next, the cones are smashed, releasing the seeds, which are then separated from the cone by hand—a very time consuming and patient-testing task. But wait—there’s more! The pine cone is not the only covering for the seed; each pine nut has a second shell which must be removed before eating. Some of these shells are thin and easy to take off whereas others are thicker and more challenging. Now it is easy to understand the high price of the pine nut!
Appearance and Use
Pine nuts are small elongated ivory-colored seeds measuring about 1/2 inch long. When raw, the seeds have a soft texture and a sweet, buttery flavor. They are often lightly toasted to bring out the flavor and to add a little crunch.
Pine Nut Mouth and Allergies
As delicate and delicious as pine nuts are, they can have negative effects when eaten. Called “pine nut mouth” or “pine nut syndrome,” simply eating pine nuts causes the other food you consume to have a metallic, bitter taste. Fortunately, this only lasts a few days, and it is believed to be caused by specific species of pine trees mainly found in China. And although pine nut allergies are real, they are a lot less common than other nut allergies.